Monday, January 20, 2020
The Growing Problem of Music Piracy Ã At the turn of the millenium, the music industry has been faced with an unforeseen phenomenon that has affected its very foundation - mass scale music piracy. The decline of CD sales in the past three years have been blamed on the availability of songs that can be downloaded from Internet sites and service providers like Napster, KaZaA and Morpheus free of charge. Today the issue of intellectual copyright infringement in music has been taken more seriously than ever before, as large record labels and companies like Sony and EMI struggle to maintain healthy album sales in the face of online music piracy. In addition, music piracy affects more than just the corporate world - it affects the very artists who create music and receive no compensation for their efforts. In fact ?many high-profile and buzz artists, including Eminem, Oasis and most recently 50 Cent, have seen their upcoming albums undercut by file-sharing online before their scheduled releases, prompting record labels to move up street dates to avoid losing album sales.? (Grossberg) In light of this, are a few positive aspects in the face of such widespread negativity but music file sharing continues to be a controversial topic in the world of music and the arts in general. Nevertheless, before analyzing the impact of music piracy on a mass scale, one must start from the beginning of the 1990?s when the music industry experienced a growth in CD sales. In fact, ?according to the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), album sales grew from US $24.1 billion to US $38.6 billion during the decade.?(Zentner) But this era was short-lived and as the nineties drew to a close, the amount of illegal file swapping exp... ...story of File Sharing.? , Consulted on November 19, 2004. Puretracks.com (2004). ?Radiohead.? , Consulted on November 20, 2004. RIAA (2004). ?RIAA Files News Lawsuits Against 750 Illegal File Sharers.? , Consulted on November 19, 2004. VALDES, Robert. . Stuffo. ?How ?Making It? Works: Antigone Rising.? , Consulted on November 20, 2004. ZENTNER, Alejandro. Measuring the Effect of Online Music Piracy on Music Sales. Online at: , consulted on November 18, 2004.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Effective communication is central to working with children, young people and their families. It involves listening, Questioning, understanding and responding to children, young people and those caring for them. Ã¢â¬â (ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce development council, common core of skills and knowledge) Communication is a skill we are born with and one which grows and develops with us, we communicate differently depending on the situation we are in, as an early years provider and teaching assistant I need to communicate with a variety of people from young children, parents, teachers, and external agencies and here are some of the reasons why. * To Build and maintain relationships see more:different reasons why we communicate From the initial telephone call or meeting with a parent you are building a relationship. A positive relationship with parents will always be beneficial to the child; this can be a simple hello or a smile in a morning or may be a more in depth communication about how the child is learning and developing and the next steps you are planning. Being able to communicate with a child or young person allows you to treat them as an individual and gain a better understanding of them and how they learn enabling you to plan for their needs and requirements. * To gain and share information Sharing information with parents or teachers is vital and should be done on a regular basis. This can help a child initially to settle more effectively as information is shared about likes and dislikes medical or dietary needs and about what the child is capable of doing. Sharing Ã¢â¬ËwowÃ¢â¬â¢ moments with parents can give them a clearer picture of what their child is doing or is interested in and sharing information about behaviour strategies can help both parties to be consistent. As a provider I must enable a regular two way flow of information with parents and/or carers, and between providers, if a child is attending more than one setting. To express needs and feelings A child needs to be able to communicate if something is wrong or making them unhappy, they may not be able to do this verbally, this could make the child frustrated, isolated and have a negative effect on their development. * To gain reassurance and acknowledgment Parents need to feel reassured that you are going to be capable of caring for their child and a good relationship with good communication will build trust, With children and young people simply by taking an interest and getting involved in what they are doing reassures them and opens up communication channels. * To share ideas and thoughtsÃ Sharing thoughts and ideas with children and parents gives them the opportunity to get involved in what you are planning; this can enhance the whole experience.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Manufacturing becomes more and more complicated when production series are short, products are diversified and production technology is variable. In the case of short-series production, Manufacturing Execution Systems join the cyber physical part of production with virtual manufacturing services and business level operations. Unfortunately, most of the existing architectures follow the paradigm of hierarchical MES placed between the control systems and business application level. They have fixed interfaces to production facilities and a predefined set of services. The main argument in favour of such a solution is the global optimisation of manufacturing operations but in the case of highly dynamic, short-series production, it isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The traditional design of manufacturing control systems does not allow for rapidly expanding options in materials, processes, interfaces to product models that have a number of variants. Holons allow the implementation of product ion variants and the rapid reconfiguration of the machines and robots. Proposed MES architecture supports the capability of production systems. Demand chain management will allow for a significant reduction in waste and will increase the profitability of production systems. Flexible production planning will effect in reducing the setup and changeover time and costs. The strategic target of proposed MES solution is one piece flow production that means the feasibility of short series production (up to one element) by using the production lines designed formerly for mass manufacturing. Like all industrial solutions, the proposed MES also has to fit the existing standards accepted by industry. The authors define an MES functional model that complies with the third part of the widely accepted ANSI/ISA-95 (IEC/ISO 62264) standard. Since ISA95 represents a hierarchical vision of MES, this model has been adapted to the heterarchical agent-based architecture. ISA 95 defines the workflow and information exchange for Manufacturing Operations Management. This includes the structure of manufacturing management functions and their interactions with business systems. ISA95 defines these
Friday, December 27, 2019
Dennis Asante Professor Okoror Global Health 09/17/14 Globalization It is summer in Ghana and IÃ¢â¬â¢m walking down a block in my neighborhood. The air is hazy and dense and the smell of food fills every corner. A city that never used to have any of foreign foods, now filled with the aroma and signs of fast food restaurants. As I walked, I realize that there was only one whole food market. Meanwhile, a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Kentucky Fried Chicken were seen on multiple corners. Another thing I noticed: the majority of people entering the fast food market are from places that were once filled with only traditionalists. A region where its former citizens used to invest their time in cooking local traditional food and sold them to the public and families. These same communities have now become so westernized that they neglect the traditional side of diet. Instead, everyone now focus on the new fast food market. People are flocking with their families into the fast food restaurants. Watching the differences between those who entered the supermarket and those who entered the McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢s, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help but think about complications minorities in the United States face from the fast food market. I made a very quick connection with the United States because I had an idea of how people in the US especially minorities, suffer from fast food. Some people (fast food victims) in Ghana arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any better than minorities in the US. The commonness of fast food in Ghana has created multiple jobs toShow MoreRelatedGlobalization in the Fast Food Industry in Indonesia1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFor this essay, I have chosen the fast food industry as the industry I will look at and Indonesia as the country. Indonesia has a population of 232 million people, with the capital city Jakarta alone has 10 million people, more than twice the population of the whole of New Zealand. So Indonesia represents a huge market for industries to delve into, in 2011 Indonesia recorded US $18 billion in Foreign Domestic Investments and ranked 18t h for biggest FDI inflow. (data.worldbank.org, 2013) And on aRead MoreThe Impact Of Globalization On The People Of China1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Globalization is a worldwide growth phenomenon where economies, communities, and traditions are being integrated through increased interaction (Goodman). However, the phenomenon has come amid controversies. It has both positive and negative effects on the globe. Positive effects include globalization of western corporations that at some point had their businesses solely operating in the western nations (Goodman). Fast communication channels have interconnected people around the worldRead MoreEssay about Fast Food Globalization1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFast Food Globalization Some people get confused when they hear the word, globalization. What is it? Globalization is a modern term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that result from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange. That means the world is slowly becoming one by producing goods and services in one part of the world, only to share it on an international level. This is a deeply controversial issue, however. Proponents of globalizationRead MoreCompetitive Strategies Government Policies Essay1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMcDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s The fast food industry is a highly competitive environment. For a leading chain such as McDonalds they always need to be thinking ahead about the competition and how the economy affects their industry. Although McDonalds is one of the biggest fast food chains they have to be aware of new companies entering in to the market, mergers, globalization, pricing, and how to continuously sustain their profits. By being aware of these main points they stay ahead in their market. Next McDonaldsRead MoreEconomic Impact Of American Fast Food Upon Developing Countries Essay1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Economic Impacts of American Fast Food upon Developing Countries Amanda Lee Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences, and the Arts Introduction Developments leading up to the 21st century are best characterized by the economic advancements found in countries all over the world. Regardless of the level of these advancements in a country, achieving higher living standards, financial stability, and overall growth of the economy are the perpetual goals for a countryRead MoreGloalization and Its Effect on Non- Western Cultures758 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat is globalization and what affect does this have on Non-Western cultures? Merrim-Websters dictionary defines globalization as, Ã¢â¬Å"the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor marketsÃ¢â¬ . When identifying the pieces of globalization, outsourcing may be the first thing that comes to mind. However, globalization and modernization are larger than outsourcing alone. In this paper we willRead MoreGlobalization And The World Economy And Global Markets Essay1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGlobalization is often connected to the world economy and global markets. HoweverHowever, it is much deeper than economic exchange of goods; it also deals with people s lifestyles, culture, language, and identity. Many people support the ideology of globalization and believed it made the world a better place for global population by turning the whole globe into a well-connected village. However, the critics of globalization claim it made our world worse than ever before in the history, diminishingRead MoreGlobalization Is It Good Or Bad?1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Abstract Globalization is the word of the XXI century, which become more and more recognized and has been present in our life for a many decades. Most people have heard that term, but far fewer people are aware of what it really means. How does it affect the public?, is it good or bad?. These types of questions everyone should ask in order to investigate the positive and negative effects of globalization. What exactly is globalization? To consider the advantages and disadvantages it is necessaryRead MoreGlobalization in Thai1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobalization in Thailand Nowadays, many countries around the world have established gradually closer contact, which is the result of unprecedented changes in communications, multinational company, transportation, and deregulation market. This phenomenon is known as globalization. Globalization causes changes in cultures, economies, laws, migrations, and politics across the globe. There are many people from the West who know Eastern culture. For example, Asians use chopsticks to eat and bowing isRead MoreHuman Resource Planning and Development Leads to Success Essay examples1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSupply: McDonalds Corporation is the leading fast food restaurant chain across the globe that serves tens of millions of customers on a daily basis. The corporation has fast food chains in more than 200 countries worldwide and customizes its food products to meet the demands of customers in these regions. This company has achieved tremendous success and profitability throughout its operations to an extent that it is regarded as the epitome of globalization. The ability of McDonalds to maintain its
Thursday, December 19, 2019
America Needs Rap and Hip Hop Ever since it became popular in the late eighties, hip-hop music has been a target of moral disapproval. Many critics have labeled the music as an offensive, vulgar, misogynist form of expression, which negatively influences its listeners, particularly children. Early in rap musics development concerned citizens and various government officials held protests against the release of certain rap albums. Rap musics opponents demanded strict censorship. But hip-hop was increasingly attracting large audiences and its supporters were ready to fight the censors who they believed were taking away their constitutional right of freedom of speech, and the freedom of the urban black culture to expressÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is a great deal of skill involved in the production of a Hip-Hop song. Although there is no melody, rappers need to work hard to master their flow which needs to have rhythm. The real talent of rappers comes in the poetry of their songs. It is difficul t to write a song that rhymes, flows and has some substantial content. A good rapper is able to blend poetry and music to create a unique song full of eloquent language. An example of the literary quality of some of these rap songs can be illustrated in the song, I used to love H.E.R. by common sense. In this song, the artist uses a woman as a metaphor of hip-hop. (see appendix 1) One of Rap musics greatest criticisms is that it is sexist in its portrayal of women. Some argue that Hip-hop music teaches young children to look at women as bitches and hoes, as women are often called in various hip-hop songs. It is this negative message that has constantly kept rap music in a national spotlight. Critics view sexism in rap as a symptom of an increasingly crumbling set of social values in the black urban community. In contrast to the views held by hip-hop adversaries, some rap artists and hip-hop supporters argue that rap song lyrics are merely a twentieth-century colloquial dialect describing contemporary courtship rituals, economic inequality, and lack of commitment. Hip-hop music is not responsible for theShow MoreRelatedHip-hop was a cultural movement. It emerged in the early 1970s from the South Bronx. Hip-hop came1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHip-hop was a cultural movement. It emerged in the early 1970s from the South Bronx. Hip-hop came from the Ã¢â¬Å"ghettoÃ¢â¬ and it became a cultural force of social protest and creativity. But from the 1990s and onward hip-hop changed from a cultural creative production to one of mass consumption. Hip-hop began to grow and through mass marketing targeting larger and whiter audiences hip-hop evolved in to relying on the images of crime and sex. Hip-hop has changed from a tool of social change to cars, womenRead MoreThe Hip Hop Generation And Its Impact On Society1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArgumentative Essay 6 December 2015 The Hip Hop Generation and its Impact on Society. Throughout history, Hip Hop has manifest into more than a simple form of life, but as a powerful cultural movement. Hip Hop plays a major part in African American culture, dialogue, fashion, and self expression. Today, Hip Hop has a joined people of many nationalities, races, and ethnicities as a society. The Hip Hop Generation has begun to redefine African American cultural norms and practices in America by theRead MoreHip Hop Rap Music And Subculture1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Hip-hop Rap Music and Subculture The topic I have chosen for this review is the association between a particular music genre and a subculture. In particular, the issue of focus is the association of the hip-hop rap genre with the black youth subculture in America. As a youth subculture, hip-hop emerged in the 1970s from New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s borough of the Bronx. The African American community was the root of the music genre, which gained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. As part of its growthRead MoreHip Hop And Its Influence On American Culture1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCultural Expression Music has inspired and touched the lives of many aspiring hip hop artists which makes it one of the most influential culture in American. Hip hop has become one of the most vital, and profitable, forces in popular culture. Hip hop beats have influenced popular music genres from rock to jazz to reggae. Hip hop is a form of art which can be expressed through rap songs, break dancing, and graffiti art. The culture has become so popular that it has entered todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion and modernRead MoreThe History of Hip Hop Music and Its Transition to Popular Music905 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHip hop has multiple branches of style and is a culture of these. This essay will examine Hip Hop from the point of view of the following three popular music scholars, Johnson, Jeffries and Smitherman. It will delve deeper into their understanding of what hip hop is and its relation to the different people that identify with its message and contents. It will also identify the history of Hip hop and its tra nsition into popular music. In particular this essay will focus on what hip hop represents inRead MoreIs Chicago A Serious Problem?1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescrime in certain areas of Chicago and other parts of the country is hip hop. Over the years, hip hop has regressed, and its meaning has changed. Everyday thousands of artist s are in the studio trying to come up with the next big hit, and it seems theese rappers will do anything to get their fifteen minutes in the limelight/ Even if it means tossing aside the original principles and ethics of Hip Hop. It is time for young rap artist, such as Chief Keef, to eliminate their promotion of gang bangingRead More Hip Hop Music Culture Essay2168 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages This essay aims to examine the importance of the Hip-Hop culture in 21st century society. It will begin with consideration of the history of Hip-Hop, discussing its stylistic adaptations, cultural preferences and concerns, referring to the studies of black culture by Ellis Cashmore and Mark Neal. Within this I will explore the ethnicity and authenticity of the culture, with reference to last years Popular Music and its Cultural Context unit. The essay will then move on to evaluate the cultureÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Problem Of Hip Hop Music952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCultural Expression Music has inspired and touched the lives of many aspiring hip-hop artists which makes it one of the most influential characters in America culture. Hip-hop has become one of the most vital, and profitable, forces in popular culture. Rap music is an international art form and is regularly heard in advertising including radio and television. Hip hop beats have influenced popular music genres from rock to jazz to reggae. The fashions, styles, and attitude of hip-hop have been adoptedRead MoreHip Hop Planet2869 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pageswalked on this earth, music has been an important part of our culture and lifestyles. Each walk of life beats to a different drum. Different cultures use music for many aspects of their lives; for religious purposes, for celebrations, for comfort, for sorrow, for relaxation, for sports, for dances, for energy, for learning, for sleeping, and for sexual experiences. Everyone uses music for something. Music connects with people and reaches them in ways tha t words simply cannot. Music is a representationRead MoreEssay on Rap Music2280 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesRap is a popular type of music in todays society, but it didnt just come to be. In the 1970s rap emerged from other types of music to become what it is today. Rap is influenced and inspired by other types of music. Its influences are closely related to each other. Rap music has derived from various types of music. In a world in which people are constantly confronted with violent acts such as rape, assault, murder, school shootings and other violences, society is eager and anxious to find and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
For hundreds of years, the homosexual community, heretofore referred to as the LGBT community, has experienced discrimination and persecution around the world. However, the world has progressed since the times of such irrational displays of hatred and fear as the blood libels of Europe or the Salem Witch Trials. Yet, there are still places that are shrouded in retrogressive, un-liberated policies of the Middle Ages. Iran is one of these seven remaining countries in the world that still employs the death penalty as punishment for homosexuals acts. Since the Iranian Revolution in 1979 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights have been reduced to nothingness. According to numerous human rights watchdog organizations, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of people who have committed such Ã¢â¬Å"crimesÃ¢â¬ 1 is in direct and flagrant violation of the most essential human rights. Although the Iranian government claims that they have never executed anyone for said crime of homosexuality, this is of course disputed by many sources, including viral internet videos of gay men being publicly hanged. Human rights activists and opponents of the Iranian regime claim between 4,000 and 6,000 gay men and lesbians have been executed in Iran for crimes related to their sexual preference since 1979Ã¢â¬ (The Telegraph). The unjust treatment and persecution of homosexuals in Iran has led to numerous deaths by stoning, hanging, and suicide, along with the fleeing of many Iranian homosexuals to surrounding countries to try to  seek political asylum. There are several factors, historical, religious, and socio-political, that culminated in the social backwardness that is evident in Irans horrific and unjust treatment of its own homosexual citizens. The Islamic Republic of Iran is a land whose social and cultural landscape has been shaped by a myriad of religions, including Zoroastrianism and Islam, and the sweeping influence of European interference. Conveniently situated in between the Middle Eastern nations and the Eurasian continent, the expansively vast Iran (636,372 square miles) is literally the bridge between two worlds. After the unification of the ancient Iranian tribal peoples, there were four dynasties that preceded the Muslim conquest (651 AD). The peoples of Persia before the Muslim conquest adhered to the teachings of Zoroaster, which stressed equality, the prohibition of slavery, and human rights. The Zoroastrian religion flourished during the time of the Achaemenid Dynasty, and the Persian region in this period saw an unmatched measure of prosperity and peace. The battle of al-Qadisayyah in 632 AD marked a turning point in Persias history as it released the flood gates and made possible a full-fledged Muslim invasion and subsequent conquering of Persia. Although the Muslim conquest of Persia left the conquerers in control of a huge portion of the unified Persian territory, the Persian conversion to Islam is considered to be a gradual and complicated process. By the 9th century, Islam was the majority religion of the region, and the conversion of native Persians to the Islam had a profound affect on their lives; similarly, the interaction of the unique Persian identity with Islam had a singular affect on Islam in the region. The Middle Ages in Iran saw accomplishments in arts, literature, sciences, religion, mathematics, and architecture that paralleled that of the European Renaissance. The Early Modern Era (1501-1925) ushered in a new period for Persia. Under the auspices of Shah Ismail I and his Safavid Dynasty, Persia was united into the first Shia Islam state. Following this initial unification were a series of political moves in which the leaders of the dynasty moved the capital of the state from city to city. Two more dynasties followed the Safavids, in spite of their weak leadership and political scandal, they managed to maintain sovereignty until the corruption of the Qajars yielded increased colonization efforts and ultimately, the institution of the first parliament of Persian in 1906. The continued abatement of the strength of the Qajar Dynasty reached its pinnacle when Reza Khan led a coup detat against them and became Shah in 1925. Under his leadership, Iran industrialized, leading to the establishment of an educational system and a railroad network that took advantage of Irans convenient location near the Caspian Sea. Reza Khan was forced to abdicate his position, at which point the Pahlavis came to power. The Pahlavis led lavish lifestyles, and using revenues from oil reserve profits, they made enterprising moves towards Ã¢â¬Å"The White Revolution,Ã¢â¬ which was a series of reforms that were aimed at empowering the social classes that supported the monarchy. In essence, the reforms targeted the lowest classes in order to co-opt efforts against the increasingly alienated middle class. However, the middle class was not the only enemy of the Pahlavis; the (mostly exiled) religious institution of Iran was incredibly hostile towards their efforts towards the White Revolution. One religious clergy, Ayatollah Khomeini advocated for a return to relgious Islamic values and a rejection of the Pahlavi agenda. The efforts of Khomeini culminated in widespread uprisings and revolts, and ultimately would be referred to as the Revolution of 1979. The foundation of the revolution rested upon the return to highly fundamentalized Islamic values, and thus laid the groundwork and the future justification against homosexuality. The new Islamic Republic of Iran, founded by Ayatollah Khomeini, rests on three pillars, the rule of Islamic jurists, the hijab (veil) for women, and the continued opposition to Israel and the United States. The modernizing efforts of the Pahlavi reign was replaced by cultural repression that embraces outmoded stances on womens rights, religious tolerance, and human rights that has coalesced into the Iran we know today. The roots of the criminalization of homosexuality in the Islamic Republic of Iran has its foundations in the Islamic Religion. In order to understand the policies of modern Iran regarding this issue, it is crucial to examine the historical implications. Ã¢â¬Å"Of the Islamic states that ban lesbian and gay sex, Iran is the most zealously homophobic. Since 1980, when the fundamentalists came to power under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini, over 4,000 lesbians and gay men have been executed, according to estimates by the exiled Iranian homosexual rights group, HomanÃ¢â¬ (Tavakoli). Islam is one of the most intolerant world religions when it comes to homosexuality. Verses from the Koran are clear in forbidding sexual acts if they are not between a married man and woman. In all Muslim countries where the Islamic ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a law is enforced, homosexuality is illegal. The specific origin of the religious injunction can be found in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, in which two men who engage in a carnal relationship and therefore suffer the consequences from G-d. The passage says, Ã¢â¬Å"If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them. The Koran has seven references to Sodom and Gomorrah. Surprisingly, there is only one passage in the Koran that pertains to what can be referred to as a legal position on homosexuality. It states, Ã¢â¬Å"And as for those who are guilty of an indecency from among your women, call to witnesses against them four (witnesses) from among you; then if they bear witness confine them to the houses until death takes them away or Allah opens some way for them. And as for the two who are guilty of indecency from among you, give them both a punishment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them; surely Allah is oft-returning (to mercy), the MercifulÃ¢â¬ (Translated by Shakir). Although this is not black and white with what to do, it has provided guidance. Islamic jurists often turn to the collections of hadith, Ã¢â¬Å"a narrative record of the sayings or customs of Muhammad and his companions,Ã¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster) and Seerah, accounts of MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s life) to further their argument for punishments that may be very harsh by modern standards. Many Islamic scholars see homosexuality as a sin and punishable offense. Because there is no specific punishment established, the law is usually interpreted by local authorities at their own discretion. The moral that some people draw from the Koran is that someone who participates in homosexual acts is contradicting G-dÃ¢â¬â¢s creation of humans and by default is disobeying G-d. However, Islam is not the only religion to condemn homosexuality, in fact, almost all Western religions consider it to be a transgression of some holy law, including Judaism, Catholicism, and Christianity. The difference between these religions and Islam in Iran is that in almost every Westernized nation there has a separation between Church and State. In the case of Modern Iran, however, there is no such separation, and thus violating religious law is synonymous with violating civil law. It is in this way that fundamentalist clerics in Iran consider homosexual acts analogous to treason: If Islam is the law of the State, and Muslim law considers homosexuality blasphemy, then by proxy it is comparable to high treason. Since the Iranian revolution, the legal code has been based on Islamic ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a law. Ã¢â¬Å"This law states that all sexual relations that occur outside of a traditional, heterosexual marriage are illegal and no legal distinction is made between consensual or non-consensual sexual activities. Homosexual relations that occur between consenting adults in private are a crime and carry a maximum punishment of death. These laws apply to males as young as fifteen, who then become eligible for the death penaltyÃ¢â¬ (Misak). Forced homosexual relations, rape, often results in execution. In some circumstances, sodomy can be a crime for which both partners are punished by death. Ã¢â¬Å"If this crime of sodomy is committed, both partners are punished. The punishment is death if the participants are adults, of sound mind and consenting. The homosexuals are executed based off the decisions of the Sharia judge. A young male who is not considered an adult who engages in homosexual activities is punished by being lashed 74 times. Ã¢â¬ (Misak). In the case of a person not consenting, the punishment would only apply to the rapist. The punishment for consenting gay females is 100 lashes. If the homosexual act is repeated three times and punishment is enforced each time, the death sentence will apply the fourth time. Ã¢â¬Å"Under Islamic law, which has been adopted by IranÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system, it takes four witnesses to prove an act of homosexuality, which is a capital crime. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why itÃ¢â¬â¢s much easier for the Islamic government to invent other criminal charges against gay people to get rid of themÃ¢â¬ (Ireland). Ireland also shares, Ã¢â¬Å"Iranians found guilty of gay lovemaking are given a choice of four death styles: being hanged, stoned, halved by a sword or dropped from the highest perch. According to Article 152 of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s penal law, if two men not related by blood are found naked under one cover without good reason, both will be punished at a judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s discretionÃ¢â¬ (Ireland). Often, other charges are fabricated and tacked on to the initial charge in order to imprison or execute homosexuals. An example of this is Ã¢â¬Å"a prominent social critic and historian, Ali Akbar Saidi-Sirjani, died in detention in November, 10 months after his arrest on improbable criminal charges. The Government claims Saidi-Sirjani died of a heart attack but did not permit an independent autopsyÃ¢â¬ (U. S. Department of State). Saidi-Sirjani was charged with offenses ranging from drug dealing to homosexuality. These convictions are falsely obtained leading to more inhumane and unjust acts against the people of Iran. There are no laws that protect Iranians from hate crimes related to sexual orientation. The Iranian government believes that no such thing exists within the borders of the country and that everyone there is heterosexual. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad stated in a speech at Columbia University, Ã¢â¬Å"In Iran we dont have homosexuals like in your countryÃ¢â¬ followed by, Ã¢â¬Å"In Iran we do not have this phenomenon, I dont know who has told you that we have itÃ¢â¬ (Agence France-Presse). Not only is he ignoring the truth, but he is blatantly lying. Because of this harsh reality of ignoring what is really going on and the severity of the punishment if found out, many gay Iranians do not feel comfortable coming out to even their family members. In traditional Iranian families dating is usually prohibited, so telling your parent that you are gay is an unfathomable thought. Often, gay couples are scared to even be seen together in public. Social prejudices, fear of being caught, and overwhelmingly realistic threats of punishment often keep LGBT Iranians in Ã¢â¬Å"hidingÃ¢â¬ . They socialize discretely at private get togethers, but even in private these get togethers can be raided by the police. In 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Iranian authorities staged a brutal and violent May 10 raid on a birthday party in Esfahan which they suspected was a gay party, beating the guests and arresting 87 people, including four women, one of whom had a child with her. Some 80 of those arrested made bail or were released immediately but face possible prosecution in the future; while 17 of those arrested were imprisoned awaiting trial, and a judge told their families that they would be charged with Ã¢â¬Ëhomosexual conductÃ¢â¬â¢ and the consumption of alcoholÃ¢â¬ (Direland). Raids like these are reoccurring and unlawful. Media and press are constrained by censorship and are subject to violating Ã¢â¬Å"national securityÃ¢â¬ . Unless used to promote the policy of the government, anything related to the LGBT community is prohibited. An example of this is in 2005 when. Ã¢â¬Å"Irans leading reformist newspaper has been shut down by the countrys hardline government after the daily Shargh published an interview with an Iranian-Canadian poet who called for greater gender equality in her homelandÃ¢â¬ (CanWest News Service). In the interview, Ã¢â¬Å"Saghi Ghahraman, a 50-year-old lesbian who fled Iran after its 1979 fundamentalist revolution and now lives in Toronto as a Canadian citizen, told CanWest News Service on Monday that the interview with Shargh (East) focused largely on poetry and literature but that she also stressed the importance of people being able to Ã¢â¬Ëchoose oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own identity, and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own sexual identityÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â provocative views to print given TehranÃ¢â¬â¢s strict policies against homosexualityÃ¢â¬ (CanWest News Service). To avoid being shut down, Ã¢â¬Å"Shargh published a front-page apology for its interview with Ghahraman, saying it had been Ã¢â¬Ëunaware of this personÃ¢â¬â¢s personal traitsÃ¢â¬â¢ and would in future Ã¢â¬Ëavoid such people and movementsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (CanWest News Service). This is just one of the form the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s control of the people. By limiting any possible resources, it is taking away the ability for people to connect with other homosexuals around the world. Most Iranians who have attempted to seek asylum in other countries have failed. Ã¢â¬Å"Gay and lesbian individuals fleeing Iran seek refugee status under the Ã¢â¬Ëmembers of a particular social groupÃ¢â¬â¢ (MPSG) clause of the 1951 United Nations Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. However, despite the international nature of the 1951 Convention, member states serving as Third Countries in which the refugees are permanently settled subscribe to differing interpretations of the 1951 Convention, resulting in conflicting applications of international law to those seeking refugee status for their sexual orientationÃ¢â¬ (Bretz). There was in increase in Iranians fleeing the strict restraints in 2007. Ã¢â¬Å"300 gays who have fled Iran since the rise of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who infamously proclaimed in 2007, to guffaws from his audience at Columbia University, that there were no gays in Iran. Most have crossed the border into Turkey, joining 2,000 Iranian refugees largely political dissidents and religious outcasts facing waits of two to three years as the United Nations processes their applications for asylumÃ¢â¬ (Fiola). Turkey is only a stepping stone in the whole process of living in a permanent, safe environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Turkey grants the refugees sanctuary just until the United Nations can find them homes in the United States, Canada, Western Europe or AustraliaÃ¢â¬ (Fiola). Hussein Nasseri, a gay Iranian man escaped Iran and fled to the UK because he Ã¢â¬Å"feared he would be executed if he were deported to his native IranÃ¢â¬ (Moore London Bureau). Nasseri Ã¢â¬Å"killed himself after the British government turned down his second appeal for asylumÃ¢â¬ (Moore London Bureau). Another story is of Ã¢â¬Å"one young Iranian who fled to Turkey [who] says he was targeted by authorities for two offenses: going public with his homosexuality and taking part in last years post-election anti-government protestsÃ¢â¬ (Kenyon). The young man went to Ã¢â¬Å"Turkey in May, fully intending to return to Tehran and his family. But now hes applying for asylum to the United States and says he cant go back as long as the current government holds power. He says he would face arrest not just for his sexuality but for taking part in the protests that rocked Iran in 2009 after the elections, which were attacked as fraudulent, that returned Ahmadinejad to powerÃ¢â¬ (Kenyon). Ã¢â¬Å"While he was in Turkey, Voice of America interviewed him and broadcast a part of the documentary in which he talked about being shot during the protests, and about Ahmadinejads views on homosexuality. The next day, he was told, security forces raided his house in Tehran and took his father for questioning. Haghjoo went straight to the U. N. refugee agency and applied for asylumÃ¢â¬ (Kenyon). These pleas for a safe haven in a new country are not rare. People seeking a better life should have the option to do so and not be exported when in need of help. In conclusion, discrimination and persecution of homosexuals in Iran is intolerable. The Iranian Revolution in 1979 has reduced the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people to nothingness.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Shakespeare, William To be or not to be, that is the question. Although the original quotation from Hamlet was not about the author himself, instead it was a written story by an author. Scholars ask the question on the same premise. Was the man William Shakespeare truly the author of all these astonishing, spellbound works, such as the infamous Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet, or was the name simply a pseudonym for Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, or another. Because of Shakespeares provincial background, records found, and unreliable sources, authenticity of his writings has left a controversy for scholars and curious members of society to debate. Many scholars find the work probably not to have come from a man of William Shakespeare's background. Being the son of a glove-maker, the man Shakespeare is not known to have an enriched knowledge in anything in particular. Looking at the dialect from the plays, it is hard to see where Shakespeare could pick up that kind of slang. He uses soldier slang, which is, in the time period of his life, something you would only learn from experience. With the knowledge of Shakespeare to have never been involved in any military duties, it is clearly seen a mystery. The only evidence that stands for where he could have learned his writing skills was at his grammar school. A low class school where Shakespeare could have learned language and literature may be the only school he ever attended. It is possible that a he could learn such brilliant dialogue and imagery, but is it likely? Could a plain society full of different classes teach a genius, or did that genius teach the society? With only a will in Shakespeare's name, and evidence that he was an actor, it is too far of a stretch for him to be recognized as the world's most famous writer with no hard evidence that proves him worthy to be the playwright. In his will and other signatures found in documents, William Shakespeare signs his name 6 different ways. How could a man of such high intelligence spell his own name wrong? This is a question that all who are involved in this controversy ask. It may mean that he, in fact, is a man of the common, but yet his name is used as a pseudonym for a very charitable man. The will of the man William Shakespeare consists of every small detail he owned, yet there is no mention of any plays, poems, and so on. Even a man of a very charitable cause would most likely leave his best gift to the world in his will, the private heirloom for his family. This is thought of as a very strange twist to this already windy path. Society may just unconsciously think that Shakespeare was the playwright as we all may think he may be, but where is there proof? With the only evidence looked at, the mystery of probably the greatest writer of all time remains a mystery because of the people who are left as witnesses. People such as Al Rowse are only believers from faith, or other, and cannot account for such an expense. The scholars are left with something that they have no control over: the past. They are digging and digging for long lost evidence or just something that could answer this curious and pain-staking mystery. Was a man such as Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford really that humble as to give a man, of his knowledge, nonexistent, the power that he should of got for the rest of all time? It is hard to believe, but then again it is a pretty close match. This is going to be left as is unless a new technology comes in to save the day. Is the faith in our hearts enough to keep the rhythm of the iambic pentameter belonging to the man, William Shakespeare?